- Achilles Tendon
- Ankle Arthroscopy
- Ankle Fractures
- Ankle Instability
- Ankle Sprains
- Arthritic Foot & Ankle Care
- Athletes Foot
- Foreign Body
- Corns and Calluses
- Crush Injuries
- Diabetic Foot Infections
- Diabetic Injuries
- Diabetic Foot Care
- Diabetic Ulcers
- Diabetic Shoe Program
- Flat Feet Fungal
- Geriatric Foot Care
- Heel Spurs
- Infections Ingrown
- Toenails Injuries
- Plantar Fasciitis
- Shock Wave Therapy
- Sports Injuries
- Poor Circulation Warts
- Skin Lesions
Foot and ankle problems usually fall into the following categories:
- Acquired from improper footwear, physical stress, or small mechanical changes within the foot.
- Arthritic foot problems, which typically involve one or more joints.
- Congenital foot problems, which occur at birth and are generally inherited.
- Infectious foot problems, which are caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal problems.
- Neoplastic disorders, also known as tumors, which are the result of abnormal growth of tissue anywhere on the foot and may be benign or malignant.
- Traumatic foot problems, which are associated with foot and ankle injuries, such as fractures.
Leading foot problems are:
- Bunions--misaligned big toe joints that swell and become tender, causing the first joint of the big toe to slant outward and the second joint to angle toward the other toes. Bunions tend to be hereditary, but can be aggravated by shoes that are too narrow in the forefoot and toe. Surgery is frequently performed to correct the problem.
- Hammertoes--usually stemming from muscle imbalance, this condition occurs when the toe is bent into a claw-like position. Hammertoe can affect any toe, but most frequently occurs to the second toe, when a bunion slants the big toe toward and under it. Selecting shoes and socks that do not cramp the toes may help alleviate any aggravation of pain or discomfort.
- Heel Spurs--growths of bone on the underside, forepart of the heel bone. Heel spurs occur when the plantar tendon pulls at its attachment to the heel bone. This area of the heel later calcifies to form a spur. Proper warm-up and the use of appropriate athletic shoes can reduce the strain to the ligament and prevent the formation of heel spurs.
- Ingrown Toenails--toenails with corners or sides that dig painfully into the skin. Ingrown toenails are usually caused by improper nail trimming, but can also result from shoe pressure, injury, fungus infection, heredity, and poor foot structure. Women are more likely to have ingrown toenails than men. The problem can be prevented by trimming toenails straight across, selecting proper shoe styles and sizes, and responding to foot pain in a timely manner.
- Neuromas--enlarged benign growths of nerves, most commonly between the third and fourth toes. Neuromas are caused by tissue rubbing against and irritating the nerves. Pressure from ill-fitting shoes or abnormal bone structure can also lead to this condition. Depending on the severity, treatments may include orthotics (shoe inserts), cortisone injections, and, in extreme cases, surgical removal of the growth.
- Plantar fasciitis--an inflammation on the bottom of the foot that leads to heel and/or arch pain. A variety of foot injuries or improper foot mechanics can lead to plantar fasciitis. Treatments range from icing and foot exercises to the prescription of custom orthotics to correct the foot position and help alleviate pain.
The average individual will exert several hundred tons of pressure on their feet each day. The physical results may include: bunions, hammertoes, flat feet, heel pain, neuromas, and arthritic conditions.
Heel Pain may be the result of excessive standing or walking. Often the ligaments become inflamed. This is known as plantar fasciitis. A heel spur may also be developing.
Treatment options include strappings, anti-inflammatory medication, custom made orthotics, cortisone injection or possible surgery. Shockwave treatment is also available.
Ingrown toenails develop as a result of a curved toenail pushing into the adjacent skin. The side of the toe becomes red, swollen and inflamed. Infection often develops.
Treatment includes removal of the side of the toenail. This is done under local anesthesia. Antibiotics, soaks and pain medications are also prescribed.
Surface Skin Conditions
These types of foot conditions can produce symptoms ranging from slight irritation to severely limiting pain. Corns, calluses, warts, fungal infections, lesions and ulcers are examples.
The early signs of problems that may lead to foot deformity can frequently be detected in children. The use of prescription footgear, orthotic devices, physical therapy and rehabilitative exercises may alter foot function so as to delay or prevent the onset of foot deformities. When left untreated, such deformities may require more invasive or aggressive treatment in future years.